First, precision parts machining mainly includes precision turning, mirror grinding and grinding. Micro-turning is performed on precision lathe with single crystal diamond turning tool which is finely ground. The cutting thickness is only about 1 micron. It is often used to process high-precision and highly smooth surface parts such as spherical, aspheric and planar reflectors of non-ferrous metal materials. For example, an aspherical mirror with a diameter of 800 mm used for processing nuclear fusion devices has a maximum accuracy of 0.1 micron and a surface roughness of Rz0.05 micron.
When the precision of precision parts is in nanometer, or even finally in atomic unit (atomic lattice distance is 0.1 ~ 0.2 nanometer), the cutting method of ultra-precision parts can not adapt to it. It is necessary to use special precision parts processing methods, namely, the application of chemical energy, electrochemical energy, heat energy or electric energy, etc. These energies exceed the interatomic joint energy, so as to remove the interatomic attachment, joint or lattice deformation on the surface of the workpiece, so as to achieve the purpose of ultra-precision machining. These processes include mechanical and chemical polishing, ion sputtering and ion implantation, electron beam aeration, laser beam processing, metal evaporation and molecular beam epitaxy.
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